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UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS
Department of History, Economics and Sociology.
Associate Professor Austin )Craig
On a Research Trip to the United States, December 15th, 1914,
^~ to May 5th, 1915.
UNIVERSITY OP THE PHILIPPINES
COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS
Department of History, Economics and Sociology.
Associate Professor Austin Craig
On a Research Trip to the United States, December 15th, 1914*
to May 5th, 1915,
The Honorable, The Board of Regents (Through the Dean of the
College of Liberal Arts and the President), University of the
Gentlemen : — T have the honor, in reporting on my recent
absence from the Philippines (December 15th, 1914, to May 5th,
1915) under your leave, to broaden the report by allusion to some
of the present possibilities for the History Department and with
suggestions of how it is proposed to make the most of them. A
copy for each member should save all encroachment upon the
time of your meeting, while its printed form I hope may make this
sizable communication less tiresome reading than one of half of
its length submitted in typewriting.
FOR A FILIPINO VIEW OF AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS.
The courses planned to be covered by the students during the
last semester were satisfactorily completed, though the change to
giving a month's help at the start prevented that entire self-de-
pendence which was originally contemplated. Compilations from
the students' papers are to be made available for the teachers of
the Archipelago through monthly installments published in the
magazine "Philippine Education" throughout the coming year.
Thus American history and civil government as seen through
trained Filipino eyes can become the basis for public school in-
struction in those branches which mean so much for popular
government. Each series of articles is to appear under the names
of the students who contributed toward its preparation, and the
resulting pride for them and the spirit of emulation which will
be aroused among other Filipino students perhaps may be con-
sidered even of more importance than the mere knowledge gained.
FOR PHILIPPINIZED EDUCATION.
Especial care has been taken to guard against the evils which
result from the exaltation of things foreign before the young.
The artificial products of the earlier Europeanized schools in
Japan, China, and India warn against allowing Filipinos to become
educationally exotics, with all the weakness in character that im-
plies in humans as much as among members of the vegetable king-
dom. With this in mind both American history and American
Civil Government are shown to have more reasons for their places
in the course of study than the present political connection.
In history, Columbus' discovery is pointed out to have given
Spain's title to these Islands and their association with the Mexi-
can viceroyalty during the beneficent portion of Spanish rule is
dwelt upon. Also it is made clear how their sparse population
in a region rich in resources places the Philippines among the
lands of opportunity of the New World, with primary interests
somewhat like those of North, Central and South America and
Oceanica and having few problems in common with Europe and
In Civics, the Laws of the Indies, from the Gothic Kingdom
of Castile, are shown to be similar in spirit to the American Com-
mon Law which, through England, came down from the Goths'
kindred, the Anglo-Saxons. So the United States, instead of
figuring as the metropolis of a colony, is studied as the pioneer
in modern popular government and thus a proper examplar for a
people of like democratic tendencies.
FOR PHILIPPINE MORAL LEADERSHIP IN PAN-
Similar preparation has been made, and like publicity will
be given to its results, in the study of the Philippines' neighbors.
These are the lands just now being discussed in the popular Pan-
Oriental movement, but there with less emphasis on the moral
leadership which belongs to the only Christian country of the Far
East. The biggest fact in Oriental History is that the Christian
civilization which Japan welcomed little over half a century ago
and which its leaders acquire in their higher education has been
general for over three hundred years throughout the islands whose
capital is Manila. What in the island empire to our north is but
a veneer, an influence as yet exerted only by the schools, here is
a part of the people's lives from infancy as it has been of a dozen
generations of their ancestors before them. China tried Japanese
teachers and discarded them because they were only imitation-
Europeans, but the Filipinos' standards of judgment, incentives for
action and ways of reasoning all make their own the learning
of the Occident while their interests lie in the Orient, yet from here
there are no covetous eyes cast upon neighboring lands.
Doctor Rizal's theory was that the average Filipino stood in
much the same relation to modern European civilization as does
the peasant of Europe to its city culture. In his home he has no
advanced associations hut whenever given the opportunity quiekly
adapts himself to them. City boys and country boys in America
nre somewhat similarly situated and from there conies the en-
couraging experience that the greater ambition among those who
started handicapped has caused an unusual proportion to achieve
Until now Oriental history has been either written from the
native side with such an intermixture of local myths as to dis-
credit it and be confusing to the outsider, or has been presented
from an European standpoint in which the people of the country
were put in an unfair and unfavorable light. The United States,
as a new nation, fortunately was not concerned in the early rela-
tions which in a few years changed a part of the world hospitable
to all strangers into a region where every foreigner was held an
It needs only the true story of the Portuguese and Spanish
pioneers to understand this attitude. Nor did England keep free
from blame when she became the predominant power. America's
refusal to countenance her citizens committing crimes against
friendly Asiatic powers, as with opium, and Americans' loyalty to
Oriental countries employing them are exceptional in the record
of foreign intercourse with the Far East and so minimized by
It follows thus that if the history of the Orient were written
from the Oriental side, as Europeans have written their own his-
tory, it would regard the forcible opening to trade of a hermit country
as somewhat akin to the recent invasion of Belgium. The burden
of proof would be on the invader to shoAv the benefit to the country
from such action; and the benefit to Europe would cease to be the
all-sufficient excuse which European writers seem to regard it.
One here must have recourse to American writers and supplement
their accounts by reference to oriental writings.
If the Philippines, long the centre of European intercotirse,
can pioneer in this work its production will be sure of a welcome
in the neighboring countries and ought to contribute toward the
educational leadership naturally belonging here.
Two months of my 83-day stay in America, which happened to
be my first visit in eleven years, was at Berkeley, across the bay
from San Francisco. Doctor David P. Barrows, formerly Di-
rector of Education, is Dean of the Faculties of the University
of California, and, thanks to his interest, 1 had excellent oppor-
tunity for work. Through the faculty privilege of drawing books
it was possible not only to study beyond the usual library hours
bat while I was looking tip references a stenographer whom I per-
sonally employed was doing the longer copying.
A Chinese scholar had just been added to the University facul-
ty, and the chief books were at hand for Oriental research. Then
their great library, besides files of European and Asiatic as well
as American periodicals, has the Bancroft collection of material
bearing on Spanish discoveries and the lands bordering the Pacific,
and a manuscript index to documents in the Mexican government
It had been my intention to go to the East, as my relatives
lived in Minneapolis and Boston and both places offered material
of interest, but the facilities in California were found so much
fuller than my anticipation that I was loath to leave them till there
remained only time for a hurried rush across the continent and
back with six days' stop in the city of Washington. As I was twice
in New York City and twice in Baltimore it will be apparent that
my family visits dwindled till they could only be dignified as call;-
en route, that in Boston being made by taking an evening fast
train and returning by the first flier three hours later. Yet by
sending letters ahead and getting friends to look up matters in
advance it was possible to accomplish most of what I had planned,
while in some lines the achievement very considerably exceeded
The Congressional Library catalogue of books and magazine
references to the Philippines was used as a checklist by which the
minor mentions were all looked up. It was a laborious task and
the bulk of the matter was based on Avhat had been published
before, so that relatively little neAv material was gotten. Yet this
had to be done, and what was obtained was well worth the effort,
I believe. Books dealing exclusively with the Philippines are am-
ply supplied by the Filipiniana section of the Philippine Library,
but magazine articles and incidental notices in books on other sub-
jects are not available here.
At the State Department in Washington I found corroboration
of the visit of a Filipino representative to the Hongkong American
Consulate in November, 1897, asking intervention. A request
through official channels will be necessary to get a copy of the
consular dispatch reporting this. The matter is important for
establishing that the uprising culminating in the Pact of Biae na
Bato had ambitious aims for the Philippines and became more than
an ordinary insurrection.
The quarantining of the transport on which 1 came made it
impossible for me to look up in Guam, as 1 had intended, about
the prisoners, who were deported there from Manila, March 14, 1872,
on the barque Flores de Maria. The deportees were:
Agustin Mendoza (of Sta. Cruz, Manila)
Jose Guevarra (Quiapo)
Miguel Laza (Cathedral, Manila)
Vicente del Rosario
Toribio del Pilar
Antonio Ma. Regidor
Joaquin Pardo de Tavera
Maurieio de Leon
However Governor Maxwell prominsed to give the matter his
personal attention and I am confident this interesting event will
soon be better known.
THE PHILIPPINES IN THE PANAMA-PACTFC EXPOSITION.
The exhibits from here which I saw during the period of their
installation naturally brought up two points about which, because
of their close connection with my work, I had been led to offer sug-
gestions in Manila.
One had been in support of Doctor Robertson's objection to send-
ing across the ocean the more valuable of the Philippine Library's
treasures, and their photographs, which he substituted, made a show-
ing beyond what the originals could have done. Further, those who
appreciated the worth of such works applauded the wisdom of the
Librarian's action, while, had the rare books and manuscripts gone,
Mich recklessness would certainly have called forth unfavorable com-
ment from all competent critics.
My opposition to putting on exhibition the so-called Museum of
Ethnology had been less successful but through au appeal to those
in charge it was possible to get the suppression of some of the more
trashy parts. Objects which grouped and labeled would have been
well enough in a collection became ridiculous when displayed alone
in such a way that they had no scientific value, yet figured under a
As a whole, the Islands were exceedingly well represented but it
seemed to me that there was lacking all reference to what had been
accomplished under the less favoring conditions of the past. Accord-
ingly a summary of the most striking positions achieved by Filipinos
under Spain was submitted but lack of funds was given as the reason
for not having this displayed. Since my return, negatives, from my
collection, of half a dozen of those notables of the old regime have
been turned over to the Governor General's office and out of its
funds enlarged portraits are being made to be exhibited during the
balance of the exposition. One of the number is Lieutenant-General
Marcelo de Azcarraga, a former prime minister of Spain whose death
has recently occurred.
The University, too, had only incidental mention in the Bureau
of Education charts, though it crowns the educational work and is
the part in which Filipino participation is most prominent. A list
was prepared of the colleges where the members of the faculty were
educated and another statement gave the number of members in each
rank, both tables presenting these facts as to totals and for Filipinos.
A brief historical sketch told of how an "University of the Philippines"
was granted in answer to Filipino agitation by the Liberal Government
of the regency only to have the fulfillment of the decree suspended
in the reaction of '72; that this aspiration continued to animate the
students educated abroad, appearing among the reforms asked by the
Asociacion Hispano-Filipina in Spain during the later '80s; that it
temporarily was realized in 1S98 by the students who, cut off from
the university by the siege of Manila, continued their studies in the
Asilo de Huerfanos building at Malabon under Doctors Pardo de Ta-
vera and Leon Guerrero; and that finally it found full fruition in the
present institution chartered by the first Philippine Assembly. For
none of these were there funds; though a hundred pesos should cover
the expense of suitable placards for impressing these important facts.
PEEPARING EARLY FOR THE 1921 QUATRO-CENTENNIAL
A Philippine historical panorama was suggested as a part of
the exhibit from here, but not adopted because of lack of time for
its preparation. The idea, however, was vindicated by the Canadian
exhibit, along the same line, and easily first at San Francisco.
By beginning now it would be possible to work it out satis-
factorily before the important anniversary which conies in less than
six years. The method is to dress manikins in typical costume to
represent the chief characters in notable events, and have painted
backgrounds to complete the historic scenes. There is now time
for ample discussion as to what to represent and how to go about
its representation. Then on March 22, 1918, the anniversary of
King Charles' signing the agreement with Magellan, each community
might observe the day by presenting as a pageant some incident in
Spain's first century in the Islands. On August 10th of the follow-
ing year, four hundred years to the day from the fleet's sailing from
Seville, the local pageants could be chosen from the second century
of Spanish rule. In 1920, the day to be observed should be October
21st, when the Straits of Magellan were discovered, and the events
commemorated be of the third century of the Spanish regime.
Finally, at eight o'clock on the morning of March 1st, 1921, Manila
should open a 400-hour exposition with the historic panorama as
above suggested, closing at midnight on October 16th, the 400th an-
niversary of Magellan's first sight of Samar. Such an observonce
would be unique, attract general attention and yet be inexpensive.
During the coming year the students in the History Department will
begin planning scenes from which selections may be made, and the
School of Fine Arts could cooperate later in making sketches of them.
COURSES OF INSTRUCTION AND INSTRUCTORS
The courses offered in the department have been gradually
changing as material along new lines desired could be obtained.
The policy is to use American courses as models, since these are
worked out from the standpoint of the people, and then have the
students make application to local conditions of the principles in-
volved. Gradually, with increased knowledge of necessary points
in Philippine history hitherto neglected, the instruction will be en-
tirely localized till America will only be studied as a background
for the understanding of the origins of democratic ways, much as
England is now studied in America. The main object is character-
building, not learning, and recitations and marks are subordinate
to understanding and progress.
This sort of history-teaching promises to develop initiative, and,
though in American institutions confined to post-graduate work,
their reason is probably because the field has been so well covered
that opportunities for research are not abundant enough for general
use. The complaint everywhere against university work in the past
lias been that its routine and exaltation of mere book-learning de-
veloped weaklings who were incapable of rising to emergencies or
meeting new conditions. Athletics have been welcomed as bringing
self-reliance, and industrial training is popular through a belief that
it compels students to think for themselves. Now as there is a
separate department of literature there seems no good reason why
history should not be developed as a character-building subject. The
one who writes his own history will be able to add valuable chapters
to keep it up-to-date after he has left the academic halls, and,
because he deduced for himself the lessons of the past, cannot so
easily be deceived by those seeking to mislead in the lesson of thy
day. Thus he will be safe in politics, the up-to-the-minute history
which is the main object of history teaching, for there the knowledge
becomes practical, since there only can it be ai^plied.
What is here said of history is equally true of the allied subjects
at present grouped with it in this department. Such grouping how-
ever is only temporary and with the growth of the instruction they
must be expanded into departments. Undoubtedly it was with this
in mind your Board made political economy and anthropology titles
of separate instructorships and in pursuance of this policy it is re-
commended that Mr. L. H. Fernandez's present title become "instruc-
tor in political science" as that is the branch in which he is special-
Besides these three ultimate, even if somewhat distant, depart-
ments of political economy, anthropology and political science, the
remaining history proper naturally divides itself into Occidental
and Oriental. The western history is in charge of Miss Neale. It
is hoped to obtain a woman assistant for her as it is believed that
the greater suitability of men for the lines more intimately connected
with the economic and material growth of the country suggests that
women be given the less active teaching work whose preparation only
requires visiting libraries.
The chief of the department retains Oriental, including Phil-
ippine, history as the line of research work. This however has
progressed far enough so printed topical outlines will be funished
the student this year, and these will finally grow into text -books
after sufficient criticism has been obtained.
With the increased number of students and the development of
the courses along the new plan has come need for a position which
might be called Seminary Assistant. A very large number of papers
have to be looked after, so that they are received at the due time
and properly filed for future review and grading. Records must
be kept. Only by watchfulness in seeing that the books are not
monopolized by a few is it possible to use reference works to sup-
plement or substitute textbooks, and some one must assume respon-
sibility for them. Besides the student labor needs supervision.
Finally in this way five instructors can be relieved of burdensom?
details which hy centralization in a single person will not take half
the time while that person's salary would he only a third of tho
average salary of the others.
Student assistance has heen working in the polyglot Philippine
card dictionary but progress has been slow because of the little time
available. It is hoped, as this student employment is a sort of
scholarship, that up to one student for each of the eight principal
languages may be authorized, thus hurrying on the dictionary to the
point where it may be useful in a comparative study of Philippine
The ultimate idea is to show the slight variation among Filipino
words and the rules governing the changes. It would seem as
though if each student left the University knowing Tagalog, Ilokano
and one of the Bisayan languages it would be easy for him to quickly
pick up any dialect he might encounter. There is a true saying, "to
speak one's own language well is no credit ; not to know it is a
disgrace." How many other languages the college man may know
his influence will be greater if he is able to speak the home language
of any community of his own land where he may be.
A supplementary lecture course by persons who are authorities
on local topics through having participated in them is also desirable.
There are many perplexing matters in recent Philippine history which
now can be frankly discussed. An honorarium should be allowed
so that the topic may be fully treated and right of publication of
the lectures given to the University. Delay in this will mean the
loss of the opportunity in many cases. Outside lectures are also
planned for the subjects allied to history included within this de-
At Hanoi is a French Academy of Oriental languages where
the early literature of China is being studied for references to French
Indo- China. A prize of 1*200 for the best essay containing hitherto
unpublished matter on the Philippines would doubtless interest in-
vestigators. A similar offer of 1*100 should be made through the
American consul at Amoy and 1*100 be allowed for the expense of
making known the competition. Amoy is the part of China which
has had most relation with the Philippines and its records date far
The Library of Congress has a large number of early maps of
this part of the world and photo-duplicates eighteen by twenty-two
inches in size can be obtained of them at about two pesos each.
One handled pesos spent for these copies would be well invested,
Now that the complete course of instruction is given in the
Philippines and students will be sent abroad only as postgraduates,
it would seem timely to revise the college entrance requirements
which still are what the necessity of preparing for American colleges
made them. Especially does it seem to me desirable to drop the
study of Colonial History there, since the lands of which it treats
offer no parallel to the Philippines, though fortunately some are
benefiting by our example. Less emphasis on European General
History also would give opportunity for more attention to other
branches of more value here.
Copies of the circular sent out to interest teachers in the public
schools are enclosed herewith. Later on these will be followed
up by others. Already mention has been made of the intention to
put out topical outlines for skeleton histories of the Philippines and
the Orient, and in July the first issue will appear of the "Philippine
Historj' and Political Science Quarterly." This publication is to
cover all branches now included in the History Department and
will be a substitute for the occasional pamphlets I have been in the
habit of getting out. By saving in postage a wider distribution will
be possible, though this has been, and will continue, a personal
The teaching of history by the eye merits attention and his-
torical friezes for University Hall corridors could give School of
Fine Arts students training so that in time other public buildings
might be suitably decorated. The history teaching for the public
now provided in having holidays, naming streets, and setting up
monuments thus would be rounded out.
^Associate Professor of History
and Chief of the Department
of History, Economics
University of the Philippines,
Manila, May 24th, 1915.
FROM MY NOTEBOOK
THE PEOPLE AND THE PROSPECTS OF THE PHILIPPINES
Blackwood's magazine for August, 1818, has an account of
conditions in Manila and the Philippines from data given by an Eng-
lish merchant who left the Islands in 1798 after twenty years' re-
sidence in which he accumulated a fortune.
"Your first question, with respect to the Spanish population,
must refer to native Spaniards only; as their numerous descendants,
through all the variety of half-castes, would include one third at
least of the whole population of Luconia (i. e., Luzon-^-A. C.)
"Of native Spaniards, accordingly, settled in the Philippine
'Islands, the total number may he stated at 2,000 not military. The
military, including all descriptions, men and officers, are about 2,500,
out of which number the native regiments are officered. These last,
in 179G-7, were almost entirely composed of South Americans and
were reckoned at 5000 men, making a military force of about 7,500.
"The casts bearing a mixture of the Spanish blood are in Lu-
conia alone at least 200,000. The Sangleys, or Chinese descendants,
are upwards of 20,000, and Indians, who call themselves the original
Tagalas, about 340,000, making a total population in that island of
about 600,000 souls. What may be the respective numbers in the
other Philippine Islands I never had any opportunity of learning."
This opinion, of a day when it was not desired to disparage the
people, gives an idea of the mixed condition of the Filipinos which,
in the opinion of the ethnologists, like Ratzel, is a source of strength.
It classes them with the English and Americans. One danger of the
j tresent is over-emphasizing the Malay blood, just as I believe in
Spanish times a real loss came from the contempt toward the Chinese
which led to minimizing and concealing a most creditable ancestry.
A prejudice of the past made all trouble makers mestizos, but
today when we are learning that trouble maker meant mem who would
stand up for his riyhls we should not forget that mestizo was used as
a reproach, that the leaders of the people were really typical of the
people. By the old injustice those who were mediocre were called
natives and whoever rose above his fellows was claimed as a Spaniard,
lint a fairer way would seem to be to consider Filipinos all born in
It has been suggested, and it seems to me plausible, that the con-
siderable proportion of those of apparently partial-European descent
which the merchant mentions was due l<> his mistaking for Spanish
mestizos many whose Caucasian features were due to a Caucasian
strain existing in the Islands before ever Magellan came.
The Comhill magazine some sixty years later than the Blackwood
article (nearly forty years ago) had a contribution by the then Bri-
tish Consul, Mr. Palgreave, on "Malay Life in the Philippines," that
makes more understandable the reputation of the islands, which be-
fore the opening of the Suez were a health resort for Japan, the
China coast and India. It also shows a fairness to the people un-
common in the Spanish-inspired writings of his day.
"Dull indeed must be his soul, unsympathetic his nature who can
see the forests and mountains of Luzon, Queen of the Eastern Isles,
fade away into dim violet outlines on the fast receding horizon with-
out some pang of longing regret. Not the Aegean, not the West In-
dian, not the Samoan, not any rival in manifold beauties of earth,
sea and sky the Philippine Archipelago. Pity that for the Philippines
no word limner of note exists. The chiefest, the almost exceptional
spell of the Philippines, is situated, not in the lake or volcano, forest
or plain, but in the races that form the bulk of the island population.
"I said 'almost exceptional' because rarely is an intra-tropical
people a satisfactory one to eye or mind. But this cannot be said
of the Philippine Malays who in bodily formation and mental char-
acteristics alike, may fairly claim a place, not among middling ones
merely, but among almost the higher names inscribed on the world's
national scale. A concentrated, never-absent self-respect, an habitual
self-restraint in word and deed, very rarely broken except when ex-
treme provocation induces the transitory but fatal frenzy known as
'amok,' and an inbred courtesy, equally diffused through all classes,
high or low, unfailing decorum, prudence, caution, quiet cheerfulness,
ready hospitality and a correct, though not inventive taste. His fa-
mily is a pleasing sight, much subordination and little constraint, unison
in gradation, liberty — not license. Orderly children, respected parents,
women subject but not oppressed, men ruling but not despotic, re-
verence with kindness, obedience in affection, these form lovable pic-
tures, not by any means rare in the villages of the eastern isles."
Here again comes the necessity of combatting the popular impres-
sion that the Philippines is a tropical land peopled by Malays. The
modification of climate from being an ocean archipelago suggests that
these islands are really subtropical, while mixture of blood joined with
three centuries of European civilization makes the term Malay mis-
It may well be that the modern tourist system is responsible for
the less favorable impression made today upon visitors here. They
come to be amused, looking for what is strange and different. Eu-
ripe has ancient ruins and historic memories, Asia idols, temples and
customs reversed from the Occident. But in the Philippines the globe-
trotter looks in vain for either and is disappointed.
The remedy would seem to be developing what is characteristic
of the country. Ours is a land of sunny skies but Barcelona as well
as Honolulu features that side more than does Manila. The Spaniards
built cumbrously of Roman cement, the post-Spanish era has turned
to concrete. Both are more fitted than the native nipa and bamboo
to withstand earthquakes and typhoons, but neither has been deco-
rated in the gay colors usually associated with southern countries.
Yet how easy and effective is such an embellishment the rainbow-like
city of the San Francisco exposition is proving. A capitol group
patterned after buildings there would not represent the prohibitive
expenditure of the repellant Greek effect now planned for the Luneta
nor seem so foreign to its surroundings.
Along with distinctive architecture goes development of local
history and the marking of important spots. Here the History De-
partment has been trying to make itself useful. Three or four really
creditable provincial histories have been podueed and the others
are being studied so that eventually not only all the provinces but
the towns as well will be known. Then the visitor can learn from
any school child whatever of interest has happened in the locality
where he is stopping.
The University History Club, having marked Rizal's cell in Fort
Santiago, plans to put a memorial on the site where he was born.
Should the Bridge of Spain be removed or replaced, effort will be
made to get some of the stones from the earliest foundations piled
in the form of the castle in the coat-of-arms at the city-end, near
where the old Bastion of San Gabriel stood, for Castile is the part of
Spain most deserving of grateful recollection in the Philippines.
Inexpensive but appropriate memorials of this character if suffi-
ciently multiplied throughout the islands where the original land-
marks are gone, and historic buildings or ruins, where these exist,
marked, together with a knowledge of legends and local history
general throughout the Islands would give to the Archipelago a ro-
mantic attraction for tourists which would make effective the ad-
vertising which now goes to waste because disappointed tourists
more than counterbalance it.
THE EARLY EUROPEANS IN CHINESE EYES.
A Chinese account by Luchow of Fukien (Amoy) although com-
paratively recent (1724) gives an interesting view of the Philippines.
"All the inhabitants of the Southern Archipelago are harmless;
every prohibition, therefore, ought to be removed and our people
ullowed free trade with (them)
, , . . Of the numerous tribes inhabiting 1 tlie Southern Arcln-
pelago, those of Lueonia and Java are the most powerful .... On
tlie west are the Europeans, a very strong and ferocious people with
whom no foreigners are comparable. "Europeans" is the general
appellation of all the inhabitants of the western islands and among
them the English, the Spanish, the French, the Hollanders, the Por-
tuguese (both iu Europe and at Goa) are the most cruel and fero-
cious. They have strong ships and do not fear the furious winds.
Their guns and other weapons are superior to those of our country.
In their dispositions, too, they are artful and subtle; they spy out
every new place and form designs of acquiring territory.
The Europeans, the Roman Catholics and the Japanese are more
to be dreaded than any other foreigners. Java originally belonged
to the Malays but the Europeans, having opened a trade, these got
possession of the country and hence it became rendezvous for their
ships. Lueonia also originally belonged to the Malays, but the Roman
Catholics having introduced their religion, took possession of the
country, and it became the emporium of their ships."
"AMERICAN INFLUENCE ON THE DESTINIES OF
Tlie Chinese Repository, of Canton, for May, 1838, gives a
forecast of American policy in this part of the world which recent
years has abundantly justified. The author was probably Rev. E. C.
Bridgman and the complete article, which was copied in full and from
which the following excerpts are taken, tills sixty-two long typewritten
"When we look beyond the national influences in actual operation
around us, and fix our eyes on great agencies, still slumbering, but
about to be aroused into action, the waking moment and the exhibi-
tions of might that are to follow it, excite us to speculation of the
most attractive character. Such interest we venture to attach to
the subject of this paper — the prospective influence of the people and
government of the United States on the countries beyond the Malayan
"In the very act of presenting this subject to our readers, we
have a prejudice to obviate. It is this — that nothing generous, phi-
lanthropic, chivalrous, can ever be expected to emanate from the
great republic beyond the Atlantic. The Americans, it is said, are
not fond of long-armed, doubtful, quixotic enterprises; they are too
shrewd, too calculating. True; they prefer, as a nation, productive
enterprises; but no less true is it, that the negotiations of the United
States, from the first-celebrated treaty with France down to the pres-
ent day, have been characterized by a noble spirit of 'independence,
ifqual favors, and reciprocity ;' in the happiest contrast to the parti-
tioning, favor-seeking, advantage-taking diplomacy of Europe.
.... This prejudice lies, we believe, against the Americans in
their national capacity only, so that the sneer at the government is
all we have to repudiate. Their personal enterprise, often pushed
beyond the bounds of prudence, has never left the Eastern Seas
without a flag, since the close of the War of Independence. Its
activity and power, we need not vindicate. For the last eight years
their benevolent representatives too, have been constantly at work
in the East, striving to diffuse those principles and that spirit, which
lie at the basis of national concord and generous intercourse.
.... No good reason can therefore be assigned, why the in-
fluence of the United States — their political, commercial, and bene-
volent agency, — should not be made to bear, powerfully and happily,
on the destinies of Eastern Asia
"The American intercourse with the East having commenced with
1784, all national responsibility for any acts done by foreign hands,
prior to that date, can be rightly shaken off. As a new people,
the historical argument is for them less complicated and less unfavor-
able; there are fewer injurious precedents to be arrayed against
them; and less danger that ancient grievances, alliances, etc., will be
openly set off, or will secretly operate against all demands for free
and honorable intercourse
.... The United States are and have always been principled
against foreign colonization, and their claims on the confidence of
the Asiatic nations, as compared with those of any other maritime
power, are of the purest and highest character
" . . . . The purely civil constitution of the United States —
the entire separation of church and state, — is an important advant-
age, now that any near intercourse must involve some interchange
of ideas between man and man, — some converse on moral and reli-
gious topics. This complete separation relieves the American Gov-
ernment from all suspicion of interest in the overthrow of one ec-
clesiastical policy and the setting up of another. At the same time it
saves philanthropists from all implication in design of aggression
or plots against the state ....
"To these political advantages, we must add the mixed one, that
the American soil produces no noxious growth, no deadly drug, to
tempt the merchant away from his legitimate employ in beneficial
.... The benevolent resources of the United States are not
mortgaged to a mass of colonial fellow-subjects, whose claims are
of prior date and validity to all others; and which being recognized,
must needs draw away those means of influence, otherwise assignable
to the 450,000,000 of Eastern Asia
.... The American representative will bear in mind, that
independent self-government is the nil e of rigid, and colonial de-
pendence the forced 1 and unnatural exception. When therefore force 1
and fraud have failed to subjugate an independent people, and an
emergency arises, precluding reference and calling for immediate
choice between the aggressor and the defendant, he will prefer to re-
spect the rights which nature and reason have conferred, and which
violence has not been able to annihilate. ....
.... In the colonial territories he will also bear in mind,
that the breaking up of all such unnatural ties must sooner or later
.... Wherever the Archipelago still presents independent
openings, he will feel a deep solicitude that aggression on such un-
subjugated communities should be checked at last, and that their soil
should become, under the guardianship of the United States, nurse-
ries of civil and religious liberty
, . , . While extending the diplomatic code of the United
States, tilling his portfolio with new treaties of trade and naviga-
tion, he will employ all his opportunities to impart knowledge, and
especially an acquaintance with those improvements, to which his own
country owes so much of its prosperity
.... In all his negotiations, with Eastern Powers, the duty
of the consul-general will never be interpreted to require him to
seek exclusive favors. On the contrary, though acting under the
commission and in behalf of a single state, be will never decline —
never fail — to embody in every treaty those noble clauses, out of
the celebrated convention with France, — which, 'carefully avoiding all
burdensome preferences,' and 'founding the advantage of commerce
solely on reciprocal utility, and the just rules of free intercourse,'
'reserve to each party, the liberty of admitting, at its pleasure, other
nations to a participation in the same advantages.' This generous
spirit, which breathes in the first treaty of the United States, and
has since animated the whole body of American diplomacy, will,
we trust, be exhibited in many a compact — in every compact — made
under their name in Ultra-Malayan Asia. As respects China par-
ticularly, it will induce the American negotiator to choose a new
path, to avoid ex parte statement, the presentation of lofty claims,
and the harping on petty grievances. On the contrary, he will pre-
sent at once the whole basis of the mutual arrangement, taking what
the United States are ready to grant as the standard of what they
require, keeping above all selfish and unfair stipulations, and making
the mutual interest, the equal benefit, everywhere apparent. Nego-
tiations so conducted, cannot fail to make a due impression, sooner
or later, on a government always anxious to have equity on its side,
and constantly appealing to the principles of justice, in all its public
'"Remembering that the benefits of free arid rapid intercommuni-
cation — domestic and foreign — have outrun all previous conception,
the consul-general will take every proper opportunity to point out to
Eastern princes and their ministers, the 'viability 7 of their states; and
thus to hasten the era, when the countries washed by the Chinese Sea
shall share in the incalculable advantages note realized on the Amer-
.... To take by force is robbery; to sell the means of ruin
is perhaps criminal; nor is it right to compel the acceptance even
<of things useful. The claim to protection cannot belong to acts like
these; it is due only to tbe fair, voluntary gift, sale or purchase of
things good and useful. But in practice, the tiling given may be
'honestly regarded by a foreign government as an evil and not a good;
in which case, the same rule applies as to the sale of articles made
contraband, for a like reason. In either case, if the foreign minister
believe that the prohibition is in fact founded in error and ignorance,
he will feel it a sacred duty to press full and timely explanations on
tbe proper authorities. But if all this be done, and done in vain, the
missionary like the merchant must be admitted to act at bis own
.... Wbcn health, or business, or any other duty, call the
American merchant home (and it is seldom his interest to stay abroad
more than three or four years together) he will carry with him a
constant regard to the objects he lias left behind him. To appear
for them — their advocate and defender — to carry their claims to his
friends and fellow citizens, will brighten the joys of home and keep
alive his usefulness. While thus employed, instead of bearing about—
"The self-convicted bosom, that hath wrought,
The bane of others 1 '
be will rejoice in the recollection, that it has been his pleasure ....
to employ himself about the lower stories of that fabric, which rests
on liberty as its foundation, (and) which rises through all the as-
cending forms of civilization and refinement."
THE PHILIPPINES BEFORE 1521.
About 425-375 B. C, the trade from the Erythraean Sea (Indian-
Ocean) to the eastern coasts of China (Shantung, Tcheh-Kiang)
passed to Indian sailors who no longer sailed through the Malacca
straits but went by the south of Sumatra and Java. 140 B. C. is
the date given for the earliest arrival in South China, possibly at
Hoppu, of Arabian merchants (Tats' in, or Tarshish). Their rout: 1
was south of Sumatra, Java and the Sunda Islands, near Timor. In
139 B. C, the Amoy Chinese (Fub Kien, the then semi-chinese state
of Min-yueh) built the first sea-going vessels in China, in imitation,
of the Erythraean ships.
These facts would suggest that material bearing upon early Phil-
ippine history may yet be discovered in Indian records, while the
Amoy records perhaps have earlier mentions than that of the third
Dr. von Moellendorf, an expert sinologist and formerly German
consul, informed Mr. Karuth that he had in his possession a Chinese
book, dating from about the third century A. D. in which a trading
voyage from Amoy to Manila is described. Gold is mentioned as the
chief product of Luzon, and names occur which are still recognizable
in the present nomenclature of Luzon.
This German gentleman appears to be now living in Munich.
An effort is being made to get a fuller reference from him, through
an inquiry going through government channels to the German em-
In I-Tsing's Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practiced in
India and the Malay Archipelago (A. D. 671-695) Korea is mentioned
as the land where people honor cocks, India is the country where
elephants are respected and the islands of the Southern Sea become
the "Gold-neighbors" (Chin-lin). The name "Golden Island (Chin
Chou) is given by an annotator (Dr. Takakusu) as Sumatra because
it fulfills the requirements of having Malay spoken and producing
gold, but Luzon equally meets these conditions.
Dr. Lacouperie in his "Origin of the Early Chinese Civilization"
uses for Malay lands the term "Heh-tehi" or black teeth country,
that is, "artificially blackened." The teeth of Japanese married wo-
men may possibly have been in remembrance of Malay ancestry or
rather the like custom found in lands of the Malay Peninsula may
have had its origin in imitating the results of betel-nut chewing.
Ma Tuanlin's 2000 states lying beyond the sea of Kwei-ki, that is,
Tchehkiang, are reduced by Dr. Lacouperie to twenty, classed as the
Tong-ti-jen, or Philippine Islands and neighbors.
The name Manila is usually given as meaning "where there are
nilad lillies," but the same authorities that offer this explanation also
tell the story of Luzon being lasong, a rice mortar, because people
thus engaged in answering a query as to the name of the island thought
it was the mortar's name that was required. Liu-sin, the Chinese
name, may have a better explanation, and Manila, is expressed exactly
in three old Tagalog characters for which there is a Sanscrit meaning
fitting the modern sobriquet of Pearl of the Orient. Mani, the name
of the finest of pearls, means in Sanscrit "Blight and shining" (much
the same as the Chinese loong known here as the name of a Hongkong
steamer) and la is kingdom, so the whole might be translated "Sun-
shine land" or "Spotless town." Mai would be only a Chinese mis-
pronunciation of Mani, the word for country being left off, and
Bayi or Bay is of course the Amoy variation in pronunciation.
Megasthenes was possibly the first to give Europeans any knowl-
edge of the island group to which the Philippines belong. He was
in the service of the Syrian king Seleucus Nicanor and in an ac-
count of India beyond the Ganges mentions imports of cinnamon and
other spices, suggesting the existence even at that remote period of
the spice trade that led to their re-discovery, nearly 1800 years later.
Pomponius Mela (e. A. D. 43) writes of Tabis as the eastern-
most point of Asia. Apparently to the south of it was Taruus, off
which lay Chryse, the Golden Isle, commonly supposed to be mythical
but there is some possibility of its having been the Chinese Island
of Gold, our Luzon. Argyre, the Island of Silver, was nearer the
mouth of the Ganges and so would lit Perak (silver, Tagalog pilak)
in the Malay Peninsula.
About this time comes the world's greatest navigator, Hippalus,
who was the first to sail out across the open .sea. From the position of
the ports and the shape of the sea he had arrived at the conclusion
that to sail with the monsoon would give the same result as hugging the
coast, and in memory of his success the southwest monsoon came to
bear his name.
The author of the ancient guide to the Indian Ocean, or "Peri-
plus of the Erytrhaean Sea, seems to think the Golden Island was
south of China as well as east of the Ganges and he mentions that
its tortoise-shell excelled. The saijlor Alexander, a century later,
passed the Malay Peninsula and seems to have reached Borneo en
route to some city of southern China. If the Javan Kings' Book
legends are true it had been necessary to make a detour around Java
and Sumatra because these were then still attached to the mainland.
The travellers whose wanderings in this part of the world are
recorded and today are available are besides the Venetian Marco
Polo, the Franciscan Friar Odoric, the Arab Ibn Batuta, and Friar
John de Marignolli, who came about 1338.
The earliest European visitor to the Moluccas and the North of
Borneo, which would mean the Philippines practically, is given by Sir
Hugh Clifford in "Further India" as the Italian wanderer Ludovico
di Varthena. He visited Burma later, before 1496.
UNIVERSITY OF MEXICO ALUMNI IN MANILA.
A report of 1775 by the University of Mexico says, translated:
"Nevertheless this limited number of graduates has given their great
Alma M;>tler fit subjects for all the dignities and employees for all
I he ecclesiastical and secular tribunals of these realms and the adja-
cent islands, and of the Philippines, too, and even some for Europe.
"There have been graduated here 84 archbishops and bishops, of
whom three have been natives, and many eminent wearers of the legal
toga in the Royal Audieneias of Mexico, Guadalaxara, Guatemala,
Sto. Domingo and Manila."
FILIPINO BUSINESSMEN IN THE EARLY '90S
F. Karuth, "F. R. G. S." who was president of an English cor-
poration interested in Philippine mining, about 1894, wrote in a
sort of prospectus,
"Few outside the comparatively narrow circle who are di-
rectly interested in the commerce and resources of the Philip-
pine Islands know anything about them. The Philippine mer-
chants are a rather close., community which only in the last decade
or so has expanded its diameter a little. There are a number
of very old established firms amongst them, several of them
being British .... Amongst them also are firms — perhaps as
far as wealth and local influence go, the most important firms —
irhose chiefs are partly at least of native blood.
— Yrs. Philippine Political Eruptions * „
, r «-
a A A Li.
The sketch shows practically continuous political unrest in the
Philippines throughout the Spanish domination. It is the intensive
study of this discontent that promises the most valuable addition
to Philippine history. Documented contributions such as have been
made by Mr. Manuel Artigas on the events of 1872 are needed for
a dozen other as notable, but less known, uprisings, and each of
the other three centuries of Spanish rule should have the same
illuminating treatment that Mr. Mariano Ponce has given to the
(Proposed placard for the S. F. Exposition.)
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
on'ce the hope of an oppressed people now the pride of a free peoplk
An Oriental Center of Learning Which is Trying to Do for the Farthest-
East What Has Been Done For Europe and America By Their Universities
WINNOWING FROM NATIVE MYTHOLOGIES AND PREJUDICED TALES BY
TRAVELERS THEIR NEGLECTED, NEEDED TRUTHS OF
UNLOOSING ONLY THE TRAMMELS OF UNWISE CUSTOMS, ORIGINATING
AND ADAPTING, BUT NOT IMITATING — ADDING TO ASIA'S ACHIEVE-
MENTS, PROGRESS IN THE PRESENT
BUILDING SAFE AND BROAD FOUNDATIONS IN SELF-RELIANT, CULTURED
CHARACTER FOR THE EVER-GREATER ADVANCEMENT OF
(Proposed placard for the S. F. Exposition.)
Before 1898, Filipinos had been
Prime Minister of Spain
Governor-General of the Philippines
Generals and Colonels in the Spanish Army
Bishops in the Roman Catholic Church
Presidents and Professors of Colleges
Members of European Learned Socikties
Authors of Hundreds of Books
Artists Honored in Europe
Lawyers, Bankers and Physicians Abroad
Students in the United States, Hongkong, India, Japan, England, France, Germany,
Belgium, Holland, Italy and Spain
A Filipino Woman developed the Islands' First Coal Mines. Manila's First
Street Railway was a Filipino Enterprise. The First Private Steamer in the
Islands was Filipino-owned.
To her own sons, the Philippines owes her knowledge of Her Medicinal Plants
and Her Geology.
Nearly One Thousand Years Ago (A. D. 982), Manila Merchants were selling
their manufactures in Canton, China.
The Philippines Became Spanish Through Columbus' Discovery
California Was First Known as On the Route to the Philippines
The Islands were, till its end, under the Spanish Government of Mexico.
January 1, 1845, the Islands changed from American Time to Asian
Manila-men were the quartermasters of the American Sailing Ships when the
United States was the largest factor in Far East trade.
500 Manila-men as the bodyguard of the American "General," Frederick Town-
send Ward, fighting around Shanghai in 1860-1862, helped China's "Ever-Victo-
rious" Army win its deserved name.
A Century Ago Filipinos were talking of an American Form of Government.
50 Years Ago a German Geographer Predicted its Early Arrival. In 1S97 Fili-
pinos Asked For It.
In 1872 executions and banishments stopped the liberal progress and, under
military rule, development was arrested until 1898.
AMERICA IS GIVING THE PHILIPPINES THE OPPORTUNITY TO GET
ABREAST WITH THE PROGRESS OF THE MODERN WORLD AND TO PROVE
THEIR PREPAREDNESS FOR A GOVERNMENT OF, BY AND FOR THEM-
NUMBER OF STUDENTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY,
SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS
Second Semester, 1914-1915.
Prof. A. Craig:
History VIII (and Mr. H. 0. Beyer) SO
History V (and Mr. C. Benitez) 117
History 14 23
Teachers' Course in History 17
Mr. C. Benitez:
Economics 2 35
History 2 63
Mr. H. 0. Beyer:
Anthropology 1 34
Sociology 1 45
Mr. L. H. Fernandez :
History 13 H
History 3 60
History 1c H
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